I. Memory: A Vital Element of Life
1. Memory Is Memory, Whether Human or Computer
As we embark upon the journey of life, memories accompany us. For without the recollection of past deeds and places traversed, we would find ourselves in great peril. Though we may think our memory is sound, it is far from flawless. Contemplate the trials of the school exam. Do we consistently recollect the answers to all questions posed? Alas, at times, affirmative; and at times, negative. Thus, we conclude our memory is respectable, yet far from perfect.
In stark contrast, we encounter the domain of computer memory. Those of us well-versed in computers know that once information is entered into the computer's memory, it steadfastly remains there. Frequently, we may misconstrue the workings of our computer programs, erroneously attributing malfunctions to alterations wrought by the machine. Yet, invariably, upon closer scrutiny, we find that the reason for such incongruity lies with us, not the computer. For the computer itself is devoid of flaw, and its execution is immaculate. Once we find the flaw and fix it, the program works perfectly henceforth.
Memory remains immutable, regardless of its dwelling - whether in humanity, the hearts of creatures, or the circuits of machines. Its sacred duty lies in the absorption and preservation of information. This information, once captured, defies the ravages of time. It is steadfast, unyielding, and sustained by the flow of electricity.
In our present existence, the vicissitudes of life may veil our memories, rendering them momentarily inaccessible. Yet, do not let these veils deceive us into the misconception that the underlying memories do not exist. Yes, the fabric of information remains intact, resplendent within memory, awaiting the opportune moment to unveil itself once more. Though shrouded from immediate recall, memory endures, steadfast in its existence.
Thus, in thinking of memory, let us not be misled by the nature of forgetting. Instead, find solace in the assurance that the reservoir of memory perseveres, transcending temporal limitations. The afterlife beckons, promising a reunion with our cherished memories, a realm where the forgotten shall be remembered, and the wonders of existence shall unfold in eternal clarity. It is a profound testament to the boundless expanse of human memory.
2. Exploring Perfection in Memory, Including Our Own
From the moment life starts, memory begins absorbing the surrounding reality. By absorbing surrounding reality, learning begins. The retention of information gives the life intelligence. It helps it to cope. Reality being absorbed into memory helps in a practical sense. What would life by like without memory? Our memories form the basis for the judgements we make. Memories keep us alive and safe.
There are implications of memory in the present. There are also implications of memory we are not aware of. Yes, memories keep us alive. Memories give us intelligence and help us cope. But they also do more than that. Memories turn us into information gathering beings.
A well-crafted computer has dual drives, configured into a RAID that causes the data to be written twice. It has taken the information it receives and written to a second drive that is a mirror of the first. Why would be go to such trouble? We do it because the data is critical and we cannot afford to lose it. Competent engineers will use techniques like mirrored drives to make sure they do not lose data. Under intelligent supervision, computer systems can operate for decades without losing any data.
It is a mistake to think human memory is any less reliable than computer memory in an array. We, as humans, cannot afford to lose information either. We go from the beginning to the end of life without losing any information. What goes into memory, stays in memory. Our human memory is engineered with the same safeguards against losing information. Losing information is not an option with human memory. Just because we cannot remember it at this moment does not mean it does not exist.
3. Memory Contains Three-dimensional Space Within
Inside our mind is perfect memory. Anything our mind is exposed to gets absorbed and saved. The implications of this are profound. Our mind gets exposed to a new environment every moment during life. Does that mean that every environment is retained in memory? Yes, it does. What is more profound is that each surrounding environment is three-dimensional space. That means that memory holds three-dimensional space inside it. This is how memory transcends physical space. Typically, we view the world around us as outside the mind. However, with this new understanding of memory, the world around us is really inside the mind. It is the moment when the outside world goes into memory is when we realize it. Our most recent memory is the present moment. By the time we realize reality, it is already in memory.
How can this be possible? How can the outside word be inside our mind? We can turn to virtual reality for the answer. Virtual reality artists will build a model inside modelling software. That model gets saved to memory at the conclusion of the session. The model is made up of geometric data, image maps, etc. that render out a computer environment. The human mind goes through much the same process. The outside world is perceived through the eyes, encoded into data in the retina, and sent to the cerebral cortex where it is assembled into a three-dimensional model. It is in the cerebral cortex where we experience reality. The process may be complicated but the outcome is simple. The reality around us gets absorbed into memory as it unfolds before us.
Memory is space. It is not like space, or a copy of space, it is space. The present moment is memory. The outside world is memory. Space itself is memory. Memory is the key to afterlife. That is why, in this section, we are going to take a detailed look at memory and how it works.
II. Constructing a Memory Bit Using Logic Gates
1. Foundations of Memory: Not, And, and Nor Gates
Memory can be created from simple, elemental building blocks. Whether they be made of wires or nerves, fully functioning memory can be built using only the following three elements.
A. The NOT Gate
The NOT gate reverses the input state as shown:
The NOT gate above has an electromagnet above the switch. Since the switch is open, there is no magnetic pull on the metal switch the switch sits in the closed position as shown on the left. Current is allowed to pass through the switch lighting the bulb on the other side.
Closing input (shown as switch one on the right) energizes the electro-magnet by applying current to it. The current goes into the coil wrapped around the electro-magnet and pulls the switch into the open position. This breaks the circuit (shown as two) and the light goes out.
The NOT Gate is represented by the symbol in the inset. The NOT Gate functions as follows:
1. When the input is turned ON, the output is turned OFF.
2. When the input is turned OFF, the output is turned ON.
B. The AND Gate
The AND gates ands together two inputs as shown:
The AND Gate will allow current to pass and light the bulb when current is applied to both inputs. The AND Gate is easy to remember because it will light the bulb when current is applied to Input 1 AND Input 2.
The AND Gate is represented by the symbol in the inset. The AND Gate operates as follows:
1. When both inputs are ON, the output is ON.
2. When either of the inputs are OFF, the output is OFF
C. The NOR Gate
We are showing NOR in the example below so you can see exactly how it operates.
On the left no current is applied to either Input 1 or 2. With no current applied current passes through the NOR Gate and lights the bulb. On the right current is applied to Input 2, the lower electro-magnet. This opens the lower switch. Current is allowed to pass through the first gate, however it is stopped by the second gate. Current applied to either input will stop current from going through this device.
The NOR Gate is slightly harder to understand than the other gates. This is because it turns ON when there is no input and OFF when there is input.
The NOR Gate operates as follows:
1. When both inputs are OFF, the output is ON.
2. When either input in ON, the output is OFF.
3. When both inputs are ON, the output is OFF.
2. Bringing Memory to Life with a Flip Flop
A Flip Flop is two NOR gates wired together as show below. When NOR gates are arranged this way an amazing thing happens. The simple electrical device gains the ability to change states via electrical impulse. It is lilke a switch that can be turned on and off by electricity. Once a flip flop is set to a state, say off, it will remain in the off state until it is sent another electrical impulse. That makes the flip-flop a perfect device for storing data. Once set, it will stay in either the ON or OFF state indefinitely.
A flip-flop is two NOR Gates combined as shown below in an arrangement below. The output of one gate is connected to the input of the other gate and vice versa:
Figure 1 shows the flip flop in state one, where the top output is OFF. Consider this system at rest. With no current applied to either input on the bottom NOR Gate, the output is turned ON. This cuts off current to the upper NOR Gate. The flip flop will remain in this state indefinitely barring outside influence.
Figure 2 shows current to the lower input of the bottom NOR gate.
Figure 3 shows output of the lower NOR gate turning OFF due to current applied to one of its inputs.
Figure 4 shows the output of the upper NOR gate turned ON due to no current applied to either input. Consequently current is applied to the lower NOR gate keeping it turned OFF.
Now the flip-flop is set to a second state where the upper NOR gate output is ON. It will stay that way and is at rest.
The flip-flop is an amazing piece of hardware. This simple arrangement of two NOR gates allows this device to store information. For example, if you have 16 flip flops you can store a 16 digit binary number. Merely set the digit 1 to state one and 0 to state two. When you set a number into the 16 flip flops that number will remain there indefinitely.
The flip flop forms the foundation for memory. Given enough flip flops we can store unlimited data. It is hard to imagine how nerves could get together to arrange themselves in this manner to give rise to memory in living things. Perhaps memory in humans is based on a completely different hardware structure however this is one way to store information into hardware - be it transistors or nerves.
3. Storing Data in a Bit
A BIT is short for binary digit. It is the smallest piece of computer memory. It is capable of storing a single binary number, either zero or one. A computer bit is basically a flip flop wrapped in a few basic circuits. The flip flop is the hardware mechanism that stores the data. The illustration below shows how a bit is set with data input and a clock:
Figure 1 shows the bit at rest in OFF status. NOR Gate B is ON because there is no current on either input.
Figure 2 shows the input line turning ON.
Figure 3 shows the clock line turning ON. Note that both inputs on the lower AND gate are turned ON. Since both leads are ON, current passes through the AND gate into the lower NOR gate B. Input on either lead of NOR Gate B turns it OFF.
Figure 4 shows NOR Gate A turning ON because there is no current on either input. This lights the bulb and the bit is considered set or in the ON state.
Note: A computer clock is merely a device that turns ON and OFF it regular intervals. The ON/OFF cycles of the clock synchronize the movement of data in memory. The clock is connected to the input of the bit with AND Gates. For current to reach the bit the clock line must be turned ON. When the clock line is OFF nothing takes place because no current can reach the bit. The clock effectively slices time into discrete sections. When the clock is ON things happen. Switches can be set. When the clock is OFF nothing happens. Dividing time into segments of action/no action keeps data movement in memory sharp.
III. Interconnecting Memory Locations into a Matrix
1. Components of a Memory Address Bus
Computer memory locations are wired together into continuous memory by an address bus. An address bus is the wiring that gives each specific memory location its own unique address. The address bus allows the computer to access one specific memory "mailbox" from among millions of available mailboxes.
There are two basic elements that make up an address bus as shown here:
1. The first element is the Gate shown left. When power is applied to the input the electromagnet switch is closes and current is allowed to pass. Conversely, when current is no current is applied the electromagnet opens and current cannot pass. We show this gate is a square.
2. The second element is the NOT Gate. When power is applied to the input the electromagnet the switch is opened and current is stopped. Conversely, when no current is applied to the electromagnet the switch closes and current is allowed to pass. We show the NOT Gate as a triangle.
A memory address bus, no matter how large, is made up from just these two elements. The square opens with current. The triangle closes with current. Creating an address bus is a matter of arranging these two building blocks into a matrix.
2. Memory Address Bus Diagram
The illustration below shows a section of an eight line memory address bus. The squares and triangles are arranged like binary numbers in a sequence. A square represents a one and a triangle represents zero. Each row of gates represents a unique binary number manifested in hardware.
The top row row is eight blue squares. This can be thought of as the memory address 11111111. The second row is 11111110. The third row is 11111101 and so on. The elements are arranged in a array so each row defines a unique number or memory address as shown:
We are going to enter a binary number in the address register as shown on the lower left of the diagram above. The number we enter is 11111010. We enter it by opening or closing switches. In this case we close the first five switches, open the sixth, close the seventh, and open the eight.
The result is turning ON lines 1 to 5, and 7 and turning OFF lines 6 and 8.
On the right you can see how our memory matrix reacts to current on address lines:
1. All squares turn ON when current is applied.
2. All triangles turn ON when no current is applied.
Gates turned ON are shown in orange.
As you can see only one memory address matches the binary number entered on the bus. That is memory location 11111010. It is the only combination of squares and triangles that are lit allowing current to get all the way from left to right. The memory bus applies current to that one memory address only.
The arrangement of gates is how computers store and access data to and from unique memory addresses.
3. Diagram of a Complete Memory Bit
This illustration below shows a full implementation of a computer bit. It shows the addition of an address line and a read/write line:
This is a computer bit. Here is how it works:
To Write Data (shown left):
1. Turn the address line ON
2. Turn the read/write line ON
3. Turn the clock line ON
4. Enter your information on the data line (ON for one, OFF for zero)
The illustration on the left shows the address line ON, read/write line ON, and data line ON. These AND together. The input state (ON or OFF) gets through to the second AND gate where it is ANDED with the clock line. When the clock line is ON the data sets into the bit.
To Read Data (shown right):
1. Turn the address line ON
2. Turn the read/write line OFF
3. Turn the clock ON
The address line, state of the bit, read/write line, and clock line are all ON. They AND together. This places the state of the bit (either ON or OFF) on the output line.
4. Complete Memory Matrix
Memory bits are the same bit repeated thousands of times arranged into a matrix. The illustration below shows 16 bits arranged into a four by four memory matrix. Each bit is identical. The illustration shows how bits are connected via the address bus, data, read/write, clock, and output lines.
Reading data is a matter of turning ON or OFF the various lines. For example the read/write line tells the computer whether you are reading data from a bit or writing data to it.
This 16-bit memory shown above is accurate. Memory in a computer is like this but there are more bits.
IV. The CPU: Core of Computing
1. Overview Of A Computer Processor
A computer processor consists of a small number of memory registers and a program counter.
The illustration below shows the exterior of a processor. The processor has 16 address lines (shown in red) and 16 data lines (shown in blue). It also has a read/write line (shown in green) and a clock line. This processor is intended to work with 16-bit memory as shown on the left. 16-bit memory has 16 address lines and 16 data lines. We wire our processor on the right to the memory on the left. Now we have a computer.
Our small 16-bit computer contains 65,000 memory locations. That is 2 to the 16th power. That is how many memory locations 16 address lines will support. Each memory location has 16 bits of data. The total number of bits our processor can support is 65,000 times 16 or 1,040,000 bits. With memory connected to the processor it can access any bit within its memory. Our processor's 16-bit wide architecture allows us to place a memory address in a data register and reach any location in memory.
2. Retrieving Data from Memory
Reading data from a memory location, into the processor, is done in three steps:
1. Load a memory address, of the data location to be read, into data register A.
2. Execute the "read memory" instruction.
3. The contents of the data at the memory address in register A, gets copied into register B.
The information is read into the processor immediately as shown here:
3. Storing Data into Memory
Writing data from the processor to memory is a three step process too:
1. Move the memory address of the location to be read to, into data register A.
2. Move the data to be written into data register B.
3. Execute the "Write Data" instruction.
Writing data happens at immediately. The data will overwrite whatever is in the affected memory location.
V. Comparing Human Thinking to Computer Processing
1. Human Thought as a Running Computer Program
A computer thinks by loading computer instructions into the processor and executing them. Once the processor has finished executing one instruction, it loads the next instruction and executes it. Each instruction is loaded into the processor on each cycle of the clock. The computer operates like a machine by executing one instruction at a time as the clock line turns ON and OFF. The clock keeps everything in order.
This illustration shows a simplified processor, with four data registers and a program counter. When the program counter increments, it moves the next program instruction into the the processor, then executes that current instruction.
Every processor has an instruction set. The instructions set is made up of the instructions that the processor can execute. Each instruction does one specific thing such as adding two numbers together. The instruction set is limited to instructions like adding, moving, or manipulating data. Each processor instruction does very little but in combination the instructions form a powerful programming language.
The processor executes each instruction one at a time as follows:
1. The computer program moves up.
A new instruction is loaded into the processor with each beat of the clock.
3. The instruction is executed.
The processor acts upon the data in its registers as dictated by the instruction.
5. Go to step one.
While a computer is capable of fantastic things, during any one moment it is doing very little. It only executes one instruction at a time. Each computer instruction involves movement or manipulation of very little data. The processing takes place within the processor's registers. The processor moves data from memory into its registers. However the manipulation and control of data takes place within the processor. The computer moves data from memory to the processor, operates on it, and moves it back to memory.
The data manipulations within the processor is awareness. The computer is aware of what is happening to the data inside its processor. The processor is surrounded by memory. However, data operations take place inside the processor. The difference between at large memory and data register memory inside the processor is that data registers are operated on and are under the direct control of the processor. It is the execution of instructions that manipulate data within in the processor that characterize awareness. The computer is aware of the movement and manipulation of data within its processor.
2. Executing a Program as a Train of Thought
As a programmer you must learn to read your program. Imagine you have completed programming for the day. Then you come back the next day. You open your program and read it. You read your program by putting yourself in the perspective of the processor. In other words, you start at the top of the program, with the first line, and mentally execute it. Then you go to the next line, exactly like the processor would do. Then you mentally execute that line. Then you go to the third line, and so on. If you are a good programmer and if your program is well written, you can follow the logic (the processor's path) from the first line to the last line, mentally interpreting each line as you go. If you can do that you know exactly what the program does.
Shown below is a sample computer program. Open your program and look at the first line. That is your initial point of focus. Like the processor, take in one line and mentally execute it to find out what it will do. The entire program may be thousands of lines long, but your focus at this moment is on the first line. You read a program by moving that point of focus down the page one line at a time. The red lines show how the processor moves from line to line through a computer program.
At times during the program you may enter a loop as shown above. During this time your point of focus starts at the first line of the loop. You mentally execute each line of the loop and then jump back to the top of the loop, as the processor would do. In the example above the program is reading email addresses from a database and printing the results to a table on the screen. Your point of focus may jump around physically in the program. Program execution jumps several lines after encountering an if statement. However the logic - the processor path through the program - remains the same. You mentally execute one instruction at a time from the first line of the program to the last.
Awareness operates like the focus within this program. Like the red line moving through the program, our awareness moves within the environment. Awareness acts like program execution within this program. Awareness, like program execution, is only at one place at a time.
At no time when reading a computer program do you mentally execute two instructions at once. Program execution happens sequentially. You look at one instruction and figure it out. Then you look at the next instruction and figure that out. This is how the awareness works. You focus on one thing and acknowledge it. Then you focus on the next thing and acknowledge that. As the processor interprets each instruction of a program sequentially, awareness acknowledges one thing sequentially. Awareness within the environment works like focus within a program. That is why thinking is called a line of thought. That is why awareness is called a point of view.
3. Viewing Reality as Surrounding Memory
Memory absorbs the environment as we move through life. The environment is made up of visual, sound, and other sensory stimuli, as well as any thought going on. The present moment is like the memory space of a computer. The environment is absorbed into memory. As each moment passes into memory as it happens. Essentially memory stores reality. Reality gets filed away in memory as we experience it. Here is a representation of the human mind and the computer model:
The Human Mind and The Computer Model are similar. Both are based on memory. Both have a processor that acts as the center of the universe. Both include everything that is going on at the moment.
4. How a Computer Could Store Reality
Awareness is like a processor running a program. The environment is like random access memory surrounding the processor. Memory is like random access memory (RAM) containing everything going on inside the computer at that moment.
Random access memory (RAM) contains everything; the operating system, data input, and running applications. Likewise our memory in the present contains everything; the physical world, any thought going on, and any input being absorbed. Here is a diagram of our random access memory in the moment:
Computers have an internal clock or clock line. The internal clock sets a cadence for the computer by turning off and on. Inside a computer time is not continuous. Time is made up of beats or pulses. Instructions of a computer program are executed only when the clock line is ON.
The illustration above shows how the entire memory map of a computer could be read into long term memory each time the clock line turns ON. The entire memory map is being read onto long term memory on each beat of the clock. A system like this could save all realities from the beginning of time to the present. A system like this would save every memory space as it unfolds.
VI. Attaining Flawless Memory through Hardware Independence
1. How Memory Stores Three-Dimensional Space
Perfect memory stores three dimensional space perfectly. We have seen how reality gets absorbed into the visual cortex. As we move through life we are absorbing bit-for-bit copies of the current environment into the visual cortex. Using memory we absorb each three dimensional space as we experience it. It happens in the background. We are totally unaware that this is happending. That is how we experience the surrounding environment as shown below:
Think of your as memory reaching out to absorb the present. The present - the outside world - is within memory. We live within memory always, even the present.
The present environment appears real to us. The rest of memory is real too in exactly the same way. Moments get absorbed into memory as we move through life. Awareness stays in the present moment. Just because awareness is not currently located within memories of the past does not mean that the memories of the past are not complete in every way. The memories of the past are just as real and complete as the present moment. We simply cannot realize past moments fully right now because our awareness is no longer in that moment. It is in the present.
If we could move awareness into a moment of the past we would experience that moment exactly like we experienced it the first time. That moment exists. It has not gone anywhere. We just cannot play it back at this time. That does not mean, however, that we will not realize past moments fully in afterlife.
2. Can Memory Store Moments Forever?
If your mind is to going to capture and retain all moments throughout your lifetime we are going to need perfect memory. Is it possible for human memory to achieve this level of perfection? For this to be possible we need a memory device that can hold every moment you have ever experienced throughout your lifetime. These moments are complete realities including any thought going on at the time. We need to store them completely without ever dropping a bit. We are talking about a bit-for-bit recording of your entire lifetime.
This is a lofty ideal. It does not seem possible. Everyone knows that cells do live indefinitely. There is turnover of the memory hardware within the brain. It does not seem realistic that the brain can make it through 125 years in life without ever dropping a bit. It would seem that the underlying hardware would eventually fail and lose the data that was stored in that hardware.
3. Memory Perfecting Technique Called XOR
Human memory is not a fragile system. It does not come crashing down when a single brain cell fails. There are ways to lose brain cells without losing the data stored in them. The computer industry has techniques where a memory device can fail completely and not lose data. Computer memory repairs itself by swapping in fresh memory when old memory fails. It can recreate lost data and keep running perfectly. This is not the only way to maintain digital memory, however it is a way to do it.
The basis of this memory protection scheme is based on the XOR Gate. When it comes to memory the XOR Gate has magical properties. The XOR Gate is a logic device with two inputs and one output that works as follows:
1. If either input is ON and the other input OFF the output is ON.
2. If both inputs are ON output is OFF.
3. If both inputs are OFF output is OFF.
The diagram above shows an XOR Gate build from four NAND Gates. The logic table for the NAND Gate is shown on the lower left. Like an XOR Gate, a NAND Gate has two inputs and one output. If both inputs are ON current the output is OFF. If either or both inputs are OFF the output is ON.
Condition 1 (upper left) shows input 1 ON. NAND Gate A has one input one so it turns ON. NAND Gate B has two inputs ON so it turns OFF. NAND Gate C has one input ON so it turns ON. NAND Gate D has one input ON so it turns ON.
Condition 2 (upper right) shows both inputs ON. NAND Gate A has both inputs ON so it turns OFF. NAND Gate B has one input ON so it turns ON. NAND Gate C has one input ON so it turns ON. NAND Gate D has both inputs ON so it turns OFF.
Condition 3 (lower left) shows input 2 ON. Like condition 1 this turns the Gate ON.
Condition 4 (lower right) shows both inputs OFF. NAND Gate A has both inputs OFF so it turns ON. NAND Gate B has one input ON so it turns ON. NAND Gate C has one input ON so it turns ON. NAND Gate D has both inputs ON so it turns OFF.
The logic table for the XOR Gate is shown on the right.
4. Hardware-Independent Memory with XOR
We can achieve memory hardware independence by XOR'ing data across multiple memory devices. The multiple-drive XOR scenario works like this:
1. A block of data (Data A) is written to Drive One.
2. Another block of data (Data B) is written to Drive Two.
3. The two pieces of data are XOR'ed together and the result is written to Drive Three.
Shown on the left is Data A that includes six bits of data: 001100. This is written to Drive One. Data B also contains six bits: 111000. That data is written to Drive Two. Then Data A and Data B are XOR'ed together and the result is written to Drive Three: 110100.
The XOR'ed data does not necessarily have to be written to Drive Three. It can be written to any drive as shown in the second row:
1. Data C (001010) is written to Drive One.
2. Data D (110011) is written to Drive Three.
3. XOR (Data C and Data D) is written to Drive Two.
You can see how the data values are XOR'ed together on the left.
5. Recovery Without Data Loss After Failure
So what happens when a drive fails? That situation is shown here:
The illustration above shows Drive Two failing. The drive has failed without warning. All the data on Drive two has been lost.
However we can recover the data on Drive Two using the data on the two existing drives as follows:
1. Take the data on Drive One (Data A) and the data on Drive Three (XOR Data A and B) and XOR them together. The result is the data that was lost on Drive Two.
2. Similarly take the data found on Drive One (Data C) and the data on Drive Three (Data D) and XOR them together. The result is the data that was lost on Drive Two.
It does not matter what drive we lose. We can recover its lost data by XOR'ing the data on the remaining drives. In this case below we lose Drive Three:
To recover the lost data we do the same thing. Simply take the data on the existing drives, XOR it together., and the result is the missing data. No matter what drive we lose we can recover the lost data. We cannot however, lose two drives.
6. Attaining Hardware Independence Through Replacement
Fully redundant memory requires replacement hardware. The illustration below shows how memory hardware can fail without losing memory:
Shown above are three drives in an XOR array. Then Drive Two fails. Here is how the computer handles the situation:
1. The computer detects that Drive Two has failed.
2. Drive Two is automatically removed. It is swapped out electronically.
3. Drive Two's backup is automatically installed in the array. It is swapped in electronically.
4. Drive Two's data is rebuilt by XOR'ing the data on Drives One and Three.
5. The result is written to the new Drive Two.
Memory is fully restored. New memory hardware is in place. This can be done logically. It requires no moving parts. Using a XOR system like this we can keep memory intact. Redundant memory hardware creates a robust system. Memory is not fragile. It can handle any mishap except for catastrophic failure of more than one drive. Here are a few things to consider:
1. An XOR memory array can take a severe hit to the hardware and not lose data. Memory repairs itself without moving parts.
2. XOR memory can recover data lost without warning. A Drive can suddenly go down and the system can recover. It essentially heals itself. Lost memory can be fully rebuilt from existing memory.
3. An XOR array works with any size data word and any number of drives greater than three. This means that we can protect a huge amount of data with very little additional hardware.
4. Humans spend one third of their life sleeping. XOR'ing data is the type of activity that takes place during sleep. Using an XOR array (or some variation of it) we are able to replace lost brain cells without affecting memory. A XOR system is capable of maintaining perfect memory throughout our lifetime by continuously replacing damaged hardware.
7. Dreams: The Mind's Data Administrator
To those of us making a living as computer system administrators, our biggest fear is losing our client's data. A good system administrator will take steps to insure that no data is lost. It is not enough to merely monitor the situation. You have to build data integrity measures into your network.
On my local computer I use a technique called Time Machine. Time Machine works in the background. It makes copies of everything I do. Using Time Machine, the machine can be rebuilt should the primary drive fail. On my network I use a technique called Rsync. Rsync makes a copy of all files on another physical computer nightly.
Additionally, to safe guard memory, you need to introduce new hardware into the network from time to time. A new computer will last about five to ten years. It is a lot of work to build a new server, transfer everything onto it, and configure it so it all works correctly. However, if you expect perfect data over decades moving and copying data is absolutely necessary.
Is it possible to have perfect data over a 100 year life span? The answer is yes, providing you use memory safe guard techniques similar to those above. This is where dreams come in. The human mind is a data-absorbing machine. It takes in each moment's environment as it happens and files it away in memory. For this to happen over a lifetime, without ever dropping a bit, you would expect to see nightly maintenance. Dreams are necessary data maintenance taking place. If the mind were to take in each moment, file it in memory, and leave it, it would eventually fail. Instead the mind takes in each moment during the day, then performs data integrity maintenance during the night to keep memory intact.
Dreams are to the mind what the system administrator is to the network. Dreams do the necessary tasks, basically moving and organizing data, to see to it that memory remains perfect.
8. Can a Single Bit Drop in Memory Cause End of Life?
Most people would say physical trama, such as sickness causes the end of life. I would say that physical trauma is an affect but not the main cause. I believe that life will continue as long as memory and information remain intact. The storing of each environment, over years and years, remains in memory, bit-for-bit, as it happened. As long as memory equals past realities, life will continue.
When something occurs in memory so the checksum indicates memory is not intact (a failure - dropped bit), life stops in time at that moment. It is memory dropping a bit that causes the end of life. This happens immediately. When the first bit of a lifetime is dropped, life stops and the grand transition takes place.
VII. Memory: A Complete Four-Dimensional Realm
1. The Relationship Between Data Lines and Memory Capacity
Most tend to think that doubling the number of data lines magically doubles the power of their beloved computers. They proudly proclaim, "Hey, my 64-bit machine is twice as potent as that 32-bit beauty I used to own." But hold on a sec, that's not quite how memory works.
When you add those data lines, what's really happening is memory size is the one that's doubling with each additional wire. So, a 64-bit machine, well, it has taken the leap of doubling a grand total of 32 consecutive times! That's right, 32 times!
You see, it's all about that memory space, that vast arena where your computer can roam and crunch those numbers. As the memory expands, your machine gains more room to flex its computational muscles. So, don't be fooled by the numbers game; it's not a simple doubling of raw power. Oh no, it's a monumental memory expansion!
Here is what that progression of data lines and exponential expansion of memory looks like:
2 data lines yield 4 memory locations
3 lines yield 8 locations
4 lines yield 16 locations
5 lines yield 32 locations
6 lines yield 64 locations
7 lines yield 128 locations
8 lines yield 256 locations
Each additional data line doubles addressable memory. As lines are added, addressable memory skyrockets at an accelerating pace. Memory growth is exponential as shown here:
This equation is read as follows: Memory capacity is equal to two to the power of the number of data lines.
2. The Impressive Capacity of 64-Bit Memory
Let's dive into the mind-boggling memory capacity of a 64-bit computer. I mean, seriously, it's like stepping into a sci-fi dream come true! Just imagine this beauty - a 64-bit machine, with its CPU registers, address lines, and memory locations all strutting a cool 64 bits wide. It's like an orchestra of bits, playing in perfect harmony!
Now, here's where the magic happens - 64 data lines running throughout its memory, connecting every little piece of information like a puzzle. It's like a symphony, with each instrument playing its part flawlessly.
Hold on tight, because we're about to reach the stratosphere of memory addresses! Brace yourself for this mind-numbing fact - a 64-bit processor can soar up to 2 to the 64th power, that's 18446744073709551616, unique memory addresses! Whoa, that's more than 18 quintillion! I can't even fathom that number, can you?
With a 64-bit memory address, this processor can directly access 2 to the 64th power of addressable memory locations, each holding 64 bits of data. It's like a treasure trove of information, waiting to be unlocked and realized! I tell you what, having that much raw power at your fingertips, it's like embarking on a thrilling journey into a universe of limitless addressable memory!
See that equation above? Yeah, that's the size of memory we're talking about for a processor 64 bits wide. Don't let that number scare you - 18,446,744,073,709,551,616. It's one heck of a LARGE number, no doubt about it.
Here's the kicker - you only need 64 data lines to handle all that memory! Can you believe it? I mean, that's like a perfectly efficient setup. The physical size of our brain, it's large enough to handle that 64-bit processor with all that memory, no problem. Imagine the possibilities! We could store realities, one after another, in that gargantuan memory space, and still have room for more!
So, let your imagination run wild. With this kind of memory at our fingertips, we can store a whole bunch of realities before we even start to think about running out of memory.
3. Understanding the Data-Word to Memory Relationship
A data word is the size of the registers in a processor in bits. It equals the number of data lines in the computer. In a 64-bit computer, a data word is 64 bits long. The data word is also the size of each memory location. In a 64-bit computer, each memory location contains 64 bits of information. This equation expresses the relationship between the data word (processor register width) and surrounding memory.
Thought, in a human, is analogous to data movement in a processor. A computer will load data into the registers of the processor and then act on that data. It may be moving a 64-bit data word into a register, a 64-bit memory address into another register, then moving that data from the processor register to that memory location on a single cycle.
During that cycle the computer acts on those registers. In a sense, the computer is awareness of the data it is acting upon at that moment. The relationship between the data being acted upon versus all other data in the computer is expressed above.
4. Comparing Memory and Processor to Memory and Awareness
The memory/processor relationship in computer provides an accurate model for the memory/awareness model in humans. Computers, at any one moment, focus on an infinitesimally small amount of data. Yet it is surrounded by a large environment. The computer focus is on a single clock cycle.
Humans focus on a single moment too. It is called the present. The computer model assists us in seeing this relationship between awareness and memory. Without the computer model we would have a tendency to over estimate the information we are aware of at any one time. We also under estimate the information making up the surrounding environment.
The true relationship between awareness (information we focus on) and the surrounding environment (memory) is the same as a computer. That relationship looks like this:
A 64-bit computer yields memory that is astronomically large and a data word that is infinitesimally small in comparison. A 64-bit computer is used for illustration purposes. I have no idea of the size of the data word in the human mind, or even if its binary. However the relationship between the data under direct computer control and its surrounding memory holds true for both computers and humans.
5. Is it Possible to Store a Lifetime In Memory?
Let us delve into the intricacies of human memory, for it is a realm of wonder that unfolds before us like the very universe itself. In the fabric of our being, memory absorbs each surrounding environment as it unfurls its tapestry before us.
Oh, the marvels of human memory, for it reaches back and grasps the threads of all moments throughout our lifetime. A grand archive it becomes, storing experiences and knowledge, layer upon layer, woven intricately within the depths of our consciousness.
Now, let us turn our gaze towards the question that beckons our inquiry: How much memory is required to store the entirety of this life-long repository? The sheer magnitude of such a task would confound even the most brilliant minds of our age. To unravel this enigma, we must fathom the vastness of human experience and the limitless horizons of time. The encounters with loved ones, the triumphs and tribulations, the sights and sounds that color our days - all find their place in this boundless expanse of memory.
Yet, to quantify this immense reservoir is a task that we can only approximate, for it resides within the ethereal realm of our consciousness, transcending the confines of numbers and calculations. The measure of human memory dwells in the immeasurable realms of the soul. That said, let us embrace the wonder of human memory, that celestial realm where past and present coalesce, and where the echoes of our existence reverberate through time. Using simple mathematics, let's attempt to unlock the mysteries of our memory and marvel at the miracles it holds.
• First, let's calculate the number of seconds in 100 years. That is pretty much the upper limit for life duration, give or take. It turns out there are 3,155,673,600 seconds in 100 years.
• Next, let's calculate the number of memory locations in 64-bit memory. There are 18,446,744,100,000,000,000 memory locations in 64-bit memory.
• Now we are going to divide the total memory locations by the number of seconds in 100 years. There are 5,704,011,970 memory locations available to store each second of life, over a 100 year life span.
• Since this is 64-bit memory, each memory location can store 64 bits of data, or 8 bytes.
• That means there is 45,632,095,760 bytes of new memory available to absorb each second of life.
• One gigabyte is equal to 1,000,000,000 bytes.
• That means there is 45.6320958 Gigabytes available to record each second of life, over a 100 year life span.
Now let's looks at the three dimensional model we used in the evidence/virtual reality section. The model includes the house, the yard, all interior rooms and furnishings. It is an a fully detailed environment as shown here:
• This three dimensional environment model requires 833.6 MB of memory space, or .8336 Gigabytes.
In conclusion, you could store 50 models like ths for every second of life for 100 years and have memory left over. So yes, if you look at it this way, 64-bit memory is large enough to store a lifetime in its entirely. It is eminently doable.
6. Proving Afterlife Exists Using Information
In the wondrous tapestry of human existence, all environments encountered during the course of a lifetime do reside in the sanctum of memory, intimately interwoven with our being. An indelible compendium of experiences, perfect in every way, accompanies us incessantly. As life's journey nears its end, a repository of memories stands with us, an archive amassed through the passage of time. Within this treasury, a ceaseless recollection of environments is enshrined, a testament to the human voyage through the ages.
Memory, akin to a sublime time/space continuum, unveils itself as an ethereal universe, adorned with the myriad tapestries of human interaction. People, emotions, and reflections of profound thoughts - the very essence of love, compassion, and all that adorns humanity - exist within this vast celestial domain.
Such a sight unfolds before our eyes: a boundless expanse, extending beyond the temporal horizons, bearing witness to the perpetual dance of existence. Within this luminous tableau lies an accumulation of realities, waiting in eager anticipation to be perceived and grasped. A storehouse of potentialities, unrestricted and immeasurable, stands poised for realization - an invitation to decipher the enigmas of the universe.
As we approach this culmination, we find ourselves in the presence of an unparalleled opportunity. To seize these untapped treasures of cognition, to unravel the veil of the unknown, is a privilege bestowed upon us. The ingenuity of the human spirit, fortified by the acquisition of knowledge and wisdom, is poised to embark upon an epoch-making journey, charting new trajectories across the landscape of understanding.
Let us, then, with minds both inquisitive and sagacious, embrace the vast realm of memory. In its boundless depths lie the profound secrets of creation and the unfathomable mysteries of existence. May our pursuit of knowledge be unwavering, and our passion for discovery be unyielding, for through this intellectual voyage, we align ourselves with the very essence of the cosmos - a cosmic dance that transcends the ephemeral confines of time and space, resonating eternally with the symphony of universal truth.
In the continuum of existence, during life's tenure, conscious awareness finds its abode in the present - the rightmost corner of this diagram above. However, upon transgressing into the realm of afterlife, a profound transformation unfolds. Conscious awareness, like a boundless ethereal tempest, expands unbounded in all dimensions - embracing length, width, depth, and time. It transcends its former confinement to a mere point at the right side and manifests ubiquitously. It permeates the vast expanse of memory, embracing all epochs and every corner of the cosmos.
No longer tethered to the confines of the present, awareness traverses the corridors of time with unrestricted freedom. It roams the annals of history, delving into the epochs of the past and unveiling the secrets of bygone eras. Furthermore, the shackles of a singular perspective are cast aside as awareness assumes an omnipresent nature, permeating the expanse of space itself. No region of the cosmos remains out of reach, as awareness explores the farthest reaches of existence.
This metamorphosis is nothing short of astounding - the creation of time and space without bound. It becomes everything and assumes the guise of memory. In its embrace, all information, all experiences, and all knowledge are realized. The very essence of the afterlife unfolds like a celestial orchestra, resonating with the grand symphony of memory.
During the course of life, our awareness is akin to that of a central processor, limited in its scope of comprehension. But at life's culmination, it transcends its former limitations, becoming aware of the vast reservoir of memory. This expansion can be visualized as a cosmic expanse - an event horizon akin to the genesis of the universe - the grand big bang that engenders the birth of enlightenment. This expansion, in its sheer magnitude, is prodigious beyond measure.
Consider, for example, the analogy of a 64-bit computer. In the afterlife, awareness grows exponentially, unveiling an inconceivable 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 (2 to the 64th power) times more information than resides inside the processor's registers. Such a staggering order of magnitude offers a glimpse into the enormity of the metamorphosis - the ineffable vastness that accompanies the expansion of awareness throughout the dimensions of time and space in the afterlife.
In this pursuit of understanding, we find ourselves in the footsteps of cosmic revelation. As awareness expands unbounded, we unearth the mysteries that lay concealed within the infinite tapestry of existence. We witness the ever-unfolding grandeur of creation. In afterlife, consciousness transforms into an ubiquitous witness to the wonders that abound within the infinite cosmos of memory.